Water Treatment Systems
The water to be used for the pharmaceutical preparations needs a high grade of chemical and bacteriologic purity. Water depuration can be performed through different well known techniques: filtration, ion exchange resins treatment, reverse osmosis, ultrafiltration, distillation.
For the use in the injectable pharmaceutical preparations, only the high temperature distillation process is accepted according to the strict chemical-physical and bacteriological value prescribed by the subject of the European regulations.
If we exclude the distillation process in batch at high temperature in a single stage (actually not applicable because of its low efficiency and its high operative costs), the processes that have to be taken in consideration for the preparation of water for pharmaceutical use are two: the various stages distillation (or multiple effect) and the thermo-compression distillation.